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渠江流域水稻热量垂直特征分析
姜蓉,张利平,彭云,龙俊天
0
(达州市气象局;巴中市气象局)
摘要:
利用1981-2018年渠江流域15个站点的气象资料,基于水稻生理界限温度指标,建立界限温度、积温初终日期等热量因子的数理模型,计算分析各热量因子的垂直变化特征、各海拔高度的旬气温、水稻潜在生育期、播种、齐穗等界限温度的季节变化以及高温和低温情况。结果表明:渠江流域水稻生长期各旬的气温垂直递减率有较大差异,在0.45~0.81℃/100m之间变化,最大值出现在9月下旬,最小值出现在6月中旬。随着海拔由低到高,通过各界限气温的时间依次后延,终期提前,潜在安全生育期长缩短。海拔1100m左右山区的12~23℃潜在安全生育期不足100d,只适合种植耐寒性较强的早熟粳稻。海拔1200m以上山区热量条件明显不足,不适合种植水稻。渠江流域日最高气温≥35℃平均日数的垂直递减率约为4d/100m,海拔800m以上无高温影响;日最高气温30~35℃之间的日数,海拔800m以下为58~59d。高温强度较适宜的水稻种植海拔高度范围在500~700m之间,生产上海拔400m以下平坝浅丘区的水稻安全齐穗期应安排在7月中旬。
关键词:  水稻  热量  垂直变化特征  渠江流域
DOI:
投稿时间:2020-08-18修订日期:2020-08-18
基金项目:高原与盆地暴雨旱涝灾害四川省重点实验室科技发展(省重实验室2018-重点-05-01)
Analysis of rice thermal vertical characteristics in Qujiang River Basin
,Zhang Liping
(Dazhou Provincial Meteorological Bureau)
Abstract:
Using the meteorological data of 15 stations in the Qujiang River basin from 1981 to 2018, based on the physiological threshold temperature index of rice, a mathematical model of heat factors such as limit temperature, accumulated temperature, beginning and end date is established, the vertical variation characteristics of each heat factor, the ten-day air temperature at each elevation, the seasonal variation of the boundary temperature such as rice potential growth period, sowing, whole panicle and high and low temperature were calculated and analyzed. the results showed that there was a great difference in the vertical decline rate of air temperature in each decade of rice growing period in Qujiang River basin, ranging from 0.45 ℃ to 0.81℃/100m, with the maximum value in late September and the minimum value in mid-June. the potential safe growth period of 12~23℃ is less than 100d in mountainous areas with an altitude of about 1100m, which is only suitable for early maturing japonica rice with strong cold resistance. the thermal condition of the mountainous area above 1200m above sea level is obviously insufficient, which is not suitable for planting rice. the vertical decline rate of the daily maximum temperature ≥35℃ in the Qujiang River basin is about 4d/100m, and the altitude above 800m has no high temperature effect. the daily maximum temperature is between 30℃ and 35℃, and the altitude below 800m is 58~59d. the rice planting altitude range suitable for high temperature intensity is between 500 and 700m, and the safe heading period for rice production in shallow hilly area of plateau dam below 400m above sea level should be arranged in mid-July.
Key words:  rice  Heat  Vertical variation characteristics  Qujiang River Basin

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